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        Basic knowledge and skills of nuclear weapons

        2014/11/21 10:53:56 (Browse times: 2014/11/21 10:53:56)

        I. Knowledge of protection of nuclear weapons Nuclear weapons are weapons that use the nuclear reaction of the atomic bomb to release huge energy instantly and play a killing role. Atomic bombs, hydrogen bombs, neutron bombs, etc. are collectively referred to as nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons can be made into warheads, mounted on rockets and fired at targets. They can be launched from land or from surface ships, or they can be launched underwater by submarines. Nuclear weapons can also be made into bombs and airdrops from aircraft, artillery shells to be fired by artillery, or mines, torpedoes, etc.
        There are several types of nuclear weapon explosions, such as aerial explosions and ground explosions. Different explosion methods have different killing and destruction effects. Its common feature is that flashes, fireballs, dust columns, and mushroom-shaped smoke clouds appear in order. The characteristics of air-blast killing are: killing ground personnel, destroying ground targets, industrial and mining, transportation hubs and urban buildings, etc., and forming a certain radioactive contamination. The characteristics of ground-breaking damage: destroying solid targets on the ground or underground, killing personnel inside the fortifications, causing severe radioactive contamination.
        The killing and destroying factors of nuclear weapons There are 5 kinds of killing and destroying factors of nuclear weapons, including light radiation, shock wave, early nuclear radiation, nuclear electromagnetic pulse and nuclear radioactive contamination. The first four are instantaneous killing and damaging factors generated in the first few tens of seconds of a nuclear explosion. Radioactive contamination can last for months, years, or longer.
        1. Light radiation Light radiation (also known as thermal radiation) is the flash of light and the intense light and heat radiated by high-temperature fireballs during an explosion. Has a large amount of thermal energy, direct exposure to non-hidden personnel will cause burns. If you look at the fireball of a nuclear explosion with your eyes, you can cause burns in your eyes. People inhaling air heated by light radiation near the center of the explosion can cause respiratory tract burns. Light radiation can cause large-scale fires, burn objects, and cause indirect burns to people.
        2. Shock waves Shock waves are high-speed, high-pressure gas waves generated during a nuclear explosion. It can cause squeezing and throwing effects on people and objects. Squeezing causes severe internal injuries, such as fractures of the ruptured nucleus with bleeding from the lungs, stomach, liver, and spleen. Shock waves can cause buildings to collapse, indirectly hurt people, and block traffic.
        3. Early nuclear radiation Early nuclear radiation (also penetrating radiation) is a killing factor unique to nuclear weapons. The formation of early nuclear radiation was invisible to the human eye during the first ten seconds of the explosion. It has no special sensation when acting on the human body, which can destroy human tissue cells and make people suffer from acute radiation sickness. Early nuclear radiation can darken optical glass, expose film, chemical failure, and affect the performance of electronic instruments.
        Early nuclear radiation could penetrate various substances on the one hand, and be weakened and absorbed by various substances on the other. For example, 1m thick soil layer or 0.7m thick reinforced concrete can weaken the early nuclear radiation to 1% of the original
        4. Nuclear electromagnetic pulse Nuclear electromagnetic pulse is a kind of strong electromagnetic wave generated at the moment of explosion. Its working radius can reach several kilometers, which has no direct killing effect on personnel, but it can eliminate the information stored on the computer, make the automatic control system fail, and the household appliances are disturbed and damaged.
        5. After the radioactive contamination, the mushroom-shaped smoke cloud contains a large amount of radioactive dust. When the smoke cloud spreads with the wind, the radioactive smoke gradually falls to the ground or other objects due to gravity, forming a large radioactive contamination area.
        The degree of radioactive contamination is not only affected by meteorological conditions, but also related to the type of explosion. During a ground explosion, radioactive contamination is serious, the range of contamination is wide, and the duration is long.
        Radioactive dust can emit harmful rays to the human body. Persons in the contaminated area, or outside the contaminated area who have contacted the infected persons and various items withdrawn from the contaminated area, will be exposed to external rays of radiation and cause skin burns. If the contaminated substance enters the body, the exposure of the body to the person is much more serious than that of the body outside the body. Therefore, it should be prevented as much as possible due to breathing and diet.
        Second, the protective skills of nuclear weapons
        1. After the protective action of the nuclear attack, after hearing the alarm, all personnel must quickly protect under the command of the civil air defense department according to a predetermined plan. Personnel in the room should quickly pull off the switch, extinguish the fire, and close the gas, doors and windows. Bring personal protective equipment and necessary daily necessities, and enter the air defense works quickly and orderly. Pedestrians, vehicles and people in public places should obey the instructions and quickly go to the designated place for concealment.
        When the flash of a nuclear explosion is discovered, various fortifications should be quickly used. When it is too late to enter the civil defense fortifications, the terrain and features within three or five steps should be quickly used to lie down on the ground. When facing a large terrain feature, lie down horizontally; when the terrain feature is small, lie down facing the heart; when there is no terrain feature available, lie down on the back. Essentials of lying down:
        Cross your hands under your chest, close your eyes and close your abdomen. Keep your legs straight and close together, and lower your head to hold your breath. During a nuclear explosion, if there are rivers, lakes or ponds nearby, you should immediately submerge into the water for protection; if you are indoors, you should use a corner, the edge of a wall, or the table to lie down or sit down for protection.
        2. Actions after a nuclear attack After a nuclear explosion, the scope of the attack is very large and the situation is very complicated. The consequences of a nuclear attack should be eliminated in a timely and rapid manner. In order to prevent radioactive dust from being inhaled into the body and getting on the skin, personnel in the contaminated area should wear a gas mask or mask in time, tie up the pants, cuffs, and neckline, and cover the exposed skin with raincoat plastic sheets, sheets, etc. Do not eat in the open air, do not sit on the ground. Do not touch infected objects. Try to avoid raising dust. Indoor personnel should close doors and windows to reduce outdoor activities. After radioactive contamination of persons or objects, appropriate measures must be taken to eliminate them in a timely manner.
        3. There are local and systemic methods for contaminating the skin of personnel.
        Local elimination is the elimination of radioactive material on exposed parts of a person's body. Wipe with a towel or gauze. Wipe from top to bottom in one direction. Wipe once and turn the towel over once to prevent re-contamination of the removed area. Elimination of the whole body is to wash the whole body with water, soap or washing powder.
        4. To eliminate clothing contamination, you can use the following methods:
        The tap method uses a broom or a tree branch to stand in the direction of the upwind or crosswind, and perform sweeping in the order of top to bottom, first and then back.
        The staff members of the Shake-Fu method stood with their backs facing the wind, lifted the affected clothing, and shook it down vigorously.
        Washing method Rinse with water. Adding a small amount of detergent during washing can improve the elimination effect.
        5. Elimination of contamination of food and vegetables Grain is contaminated with radioactive dust. The elimination method should be determined according to the packaging. For the sealed food, only the packaging should be eliminated. For the food that is not tightly packed, the surface layer should be removed. Wash with water for 2 or 3 times.
        Contaminated vegetables and fruits should be removed by repeated washing or peeling with water.

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