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          Science and Technology Daily: Development of nuclear power under the guidance of the "Nuclear Safety Concept"

          2014/10/31 8:40:20 (Views: 2014/10/31 8:40:20)

          Source: Science and Technology Daily Date: 2014-10-31


          After the Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan in March 2011, the Chinese Academy of Engineering organized a consulting project on "Re-Research on the Development of Nuclear Energy in China", focusing on the contradictions faced by China's nuclear safety development, scale development and sustainable development under the new nuclear power development situation. Focus on the analysis of several important issues that need to be resolved in the near and long term of China's nuclear energy development. President Xi Jinping fully explained China's "nuclear safety concept" at the Global Nuclear Safety Summit. China's nuclear power development must be fully implemented. This research puts forward the following views on the guidelines and strategic positioning of China's nuclear power development, the speed and scale of nuclear power development, the support capabilities of nuclear power development, and issues that should be considered in the long-term sustainable development of nuclear power.

          I. "Safe and Steady-Scale Development of Nuclear Power" Must Be One of the Basic Strategies for China's Energy Development

          China's economic and social development is still at a stage of continuous growth in energy demand. At the same time, it is also facing the dual challenges of increasing domestic resource and environmental constraints and coping with climate change to reduce CO2 emissions. The development of nuclear power will have an irreplaceable role in breaking through the bottleneck constraints of resources and environment, ensuring energy security, reducing CO2 emissions, and achieving green and low-carbon development. Nuclear power must be developed as an important pillar of China's future sustainable energy system. Because only low-carbon and clean energy such as nuclear power, renewable energy, and natural gas work together to complement and promote each other, can a high proportion of coal be replaced, support the future growth of China's power, and ensure the security of China's energy supply. Nuclear power, renewable energy and natural gas are not mutually exclusive. In fact, China ’s nuclear power development is to replace coal power. The development of nuclear power is equivalent to the development of less coal power. If nuclear power is not developed, more coal must be used. The seriousness of environmental pollution and resource constraints brought about by this cannot be avoided.

          Nuclear power construction has a large investment and a long R & D construction period. Many key issues in the medium and long-term development of nuclear power need to be solved, such as the improvement of nuclear safety level, the guarantee of nuclear fuel resources, site resources and layout, independent capacity building, radioactive waste disposal, nuclear power technology Basic research, etc. These issues are only relevant and practical if they are discussed on the basis of nuclear power scale development. Therefore, "safe and stable development of nuclear power" must be considered as the strategic choice for China's energy development, otherwise it will be difficult to achieve an orderly and stable development of nuclear power.

          China's nuclear power development policy can be summarized as: strategic competition, security, stability and efficiency.

          Strategic competition means that under the global low-carbon development trend, mastering advanced nuclear energy technology will become a symbol of a country's core competitiveness. Nuclear energy should become a strategic high-tech field in China. It is necessary to form an independent and innovative nuclear industry brand and strive for Gain strategic competitive advantage worldwide.

          Ensuring safety means adhering to the fundamental policy of safety first and ensuring that radioactive material leakage incidents that have a serious impact on public health and the environment are eliminated.

          Steady and efficient refers to scientific planning and orderly advancement, which promotes the coordinated development of China's nuclear power construction scale, speed, quality and efficiency. Reform institutional mechanisms, strengthen and improve the nuclear power industry system, safety supervision system, and nuclear accident emergency response system, and strive to achieve the safe, steady, efficient, and sustainable development of nuclear power in China.

          2. The principle of safety first should be adhered to to further improve the safety of nuclear power

          The Fukushima nuclear accident caused worldwide attention and further attention to the safety of nuclear power. The performance of the world's major nuclear power nations such as the United States, France, Russia, and the United Kingdom is obviously more rational and stable, and they have systematically conducted a re-evaluation of their nuclear power safety, put forward corresponding safety requirements and improvements, and other actions, reflecting the nuclear power nations. Extensive experience and deep technical foundation in dealing with extreme events. The major nuclear power nations in the world have all adopted a position to continue to develop nuclear power. Their positions and attitudes have played a fundamental and stable role in the development of nuclear power throughout the world, and continue to affirm the basic understanding that nuclear power is a clean, safe, and low-carbon energy source.

          China has entered a stagnant period of nuclear power after the Fukushima nuclear accident. After a year of major nuclear safety inspections and debates and discussions, on October 24, 2012, the State Council executive meeting reviewed and approved in principle the revised medium- and long-term development plan for nuclear power to restore the normal construction of nuclear power steadily, and required a reasonable grasp of the pace of construction and steady progress. Orderly promote the development of nuclear power in China.

          What standards nuclear power in the post-Fukushima era should follow is an important issue that directly affects the development of nuclear power in China. China has carried out a series of studies on nuclear safety requirements, and successively issued relevant requirements and documents, such as "Nuclear Power Safety Plan (2011-2020)", "Safety Requirements for New Nuclear Power Plants During the Twelfth Five-Year Plan", and "Fuk General Technical Requirements for Nuclear Power Plant Improvement Actions after the Island Nuclear Accident. Based on the requirements of the current regulations, further implement the safety, maturity, and reliability requirements of the unit set out in the latest nuclear safety planning, safety requirements, and other documents. China ’s current nuclear safety regulations require the highest global safety standards. The industry has basically reached consensus. The current problem is not how high the standards are, but how to implement and enforce them.

          First of all, we must earnestly learn the lessons of nuclear accidents such as Fukushima and the beneficial experiences of various countries. The Fukushima nuclear accident was caused by a tsunami caused by a strong earthquake that exceeded the design, causing safety systems and equipment to fail due to flooding with seawater, and leading to a long-term power outage at the nuclear power plant, causing the fuel elements to lose cooling and damage, and fuel element cladding and water. A large amount of hydrogen produced by the reaction is released to cause an explosion, which causes a large amount of radioactive material to be released to the environment. Although no one has been reported to have been affected by the radiological radiation caused by the nuclear accident to date, about 50,000 people have been evacuated from their homes, and the ecological environment must be rehabilitated at a huge cost, including decontamination of large areas of land.

          An important lesson from the Fukushima accident is the lack of awareness and response plans for small-probability accident sequences such as extreme natural disasters and serious accidents. The failure to anticipate the simultaneous occurrence of a nuclear accident and a natural disaster, and the lack of procedures and measures to cope with the crisis, led to an unknown situation in the event of a prolonged power outage.

          The international nuclear energy community has recognized the need to further improve the safety of nuclear power plants, including: strengthening the containment and its safety facilities to mitigate accidents, achieving the practical elimination of large-scale radioactive release to the environment from the design, and improving the reliability of power supplies in severe disaster situations And ensure the reliability of the monitoring of key parameters and instruments; enhance the preparation and ability to respond to long-term multi-unit accidents, and make emergency preparations for decision-making, radiation monitoring, and public education. China's nuclear power industry should also earnestly learn from the Fukushima accident, further improve its own safety level, and effectively implement improvement measures in response to problems such as insufficient natural disaster and severe accident mitigation capabilities and insufficient nuclear emergency response capabilities.

          In terms of improving its nuclear safety level and strengthening its ability to respond to extreme external natural disasters and serious accidents, China's nuclear power plants should seriously implement the rectification opinions of the comprehensive nuclear safety inspection, identify gaps and weak points from the most advanced safety standards, and stage by stage Complement and upgrade the original design, continuously improve the level of nuclear safety, comprehensively promote the development of severe accident management guidelines and strengthen drills, improve the quality of operating personnel, and strive to strengthen the building of emergency capabilities in the plant, especially the ability to respond to accidents.

          With regard to the emergency response capabilities of nuclear accidents, China urgently needs to take targeted measures in the following areas: (1) practically strengthening and improving the nuclear accident emergency system; (2) strengthening the ability to quickly concentrate the required technical force to respond to accidents according to the accident level Capacity, especially in the early stages of accident handling, to prevent the escalation and expansion of accidents; (3) emergency material storage should be sufficient and avoid excessive economic burden, and should be under the unified deployment of the country by the power plant and the corresponding competent authority The nuclear power group, the nuclear power plant operating unit and other parties coordinate and implement the implementation; (4) Each power plant must quickly formulate severe accident management guidelines and keep up with international trends to expand the coverage and scope of severe accidents.

          In order to implement the spirit of the executive meeting of the State Council, China has carried out a series of research work on nuclear safety requirements, and has successively issued relevant regulatory documents to urge implementation. New documents such as the International Atomic Energy Agency's newly issued "Safety Design for Nuclear Power Plants" (IAEA SSR2 / 1) and more have put forward practical requirements for the implementation of some principled requirements in the current regulations, such as "the actual elimination of a large amount of radioactivity "Release", "design extensions", "capacity to maintain integrity under extreme conditions", etc. How to implement these specific requirements in new nuclear power projects should be the focus of the current design and safety review of new nuclear power projects.

          Third, pay attention to and do a good job of the top-level design of nuclear power long-term development

          Achieving the scale and sustainable development of nuclear power in China involves strategic deployment and arrangements in the coming decades, involving many industries and huge investments. China's nuclear power has strategic significance only if it develops to a considerable scale. Steady grasp of the rhythm and layout to effectively ensure the steady development of the entire nuclear power industry must have a clear and predictable top-level design for the long-term development of nuclear power to promote the virtuous cycle of nuclear power related industries. This is also one of the important experiences of nuclear power developed countries such as France on the summary of nuclear power development. Under the guidance of the nuclear power development strategy, based on the scientific assessment of the availability of nuclear fuel and related technology development, accelerate the formulation of mid- and long-term plans for the sustainable development of nuclear power in China, and establish the ability to continuously assess the controllability and adjustability of relevant plans Sexual ability.

          So far, China has run 21 nuclear power plants with an installed capacity of about 18 million kilowatts; 27 units under construction with a total installed capacity of more than 40 million kilowatts. According to the requirements of China's long-term energy strategy, and in accordance with the guiding ideology of ensuring safety and steady progress, it is recommended that before 2020, relevant safety requirements should be implemented in accordance with relevant plans and requirements, basic capacity building should be consolidated, and the layout and mechanism and systems should be improved. The installed capacity of nuclear power operations in 2020 is expected to reach approximately 58 million kilowatts, with 30 million kilowatts under construction. Gradually expand the scale after 2020, gradually increase the proportion of nuclear power in the total power generation, and strive to account for about 15% by 2050, reaching the current average level of developed countries in nuclear power.

          Fourth, accelerate the development and application of China's independent innovation of the third generation nuclear power technology

          Due to the impact of the Fukushima nuclear accident, the second-generation improved nuclear power project originally planned to be constructed has been suspended, and the time for the batch production of new reactors introduced from abroad has been delayed compared to the original plan, which has caused a large amount of idle production capacity for nuclear power equipment manufacturing. . At present, measures should be taken as soon as possible to solve the problems in the transition period, so as to avoid the ups and downs of nuclear power construction, which is not conducive to the steady development of the entire industrial chain. On several nuclear power plant sites considered as legacy issues, such as Hongyanhe Units 5 and 6, Yangjiang Units 5 and 6, and Tianwan Units 5 and 6, a few were built based on the current second-generation plus improved technology. And comply with the “Design Regulations for Nuclear Power Plants” (HAF102-2004), “General Technical Requirements for Improving Actions of Nuclear Power Plants after the Fukushima Accident”, and the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” for Nuclear Safety and Radioactive Pollution Control The objective of the Probability Safety Objective requires the addition of corresponding improvement measures to maintain the gradual and progressive development of the industrial chain, and the establishment of demonstrations for second-generation improved nuclear power units currently in operation and under construction should be considered.

          At the same time, the development and application of third-generation nuclear power technology that promotes independent innovation should be accelerated. Under the strong support and guidance of the National Energy Administration and the National Nuclear Safety Administration, China Nuclear Power Corporation and China Guangdong Nuclear Power Corporation, based on the original second-generation improved mature technology, fully draw on advanced design concepts that incorporate international nuclear power technology , And the years of experience in designing, constructing, and operating nuclear power plants in China, jointly developed the third-generation nuclear power technology independently developed by Hualong One. It can complement the technology of CAP1400 large-scale advanced pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant developed with reference to the introduction of three generations of technology in China, meet the needs of participating in the domestic and international nuclear power market, and is conducive to the steady and efficient development of China's nuclear power industry. We suggest that the state continue to give active support to the development and application of the third-generation nuclear power technology independently developed by Hualong No. 1.

          V. Steady start of construction of inland nuclear power demonstration project

          According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection's classification evaluation and research on China's alternative sites, nearly 40% of China's more mature alternative sites are inland sites. And as the country's economic development extends to the central and western regions, the economy of inland regions accelerates, and the demand for electricity also increases. Therefore, China needs to further develop inland nuclear power. Inland nuclear power is an important part of China's large-scale nuclear power development.

          Affected by the Fukushima nuclear accident, the development of inland nuclear power has received more attention. Therefore, it is necessary to give sufficient and scientific answers to issues of general concern such as the safe site selection and water use of China's proposed inland nuclear power plants. of.

          The experience and lessons of radioactive wastewater leakage from the Fukushima nuclear accident should be studied in depth, and reliable safeguard measures should be taken to ensure the safety of inland nuclear power plants. Many foreign pressurized water reactor nuclear power plants have been built inland. International practice has shown that the actual cumulative impact of the discharge of radioactive liquid effluents during the normal operation of inland nuclear power plants on the receiving water body is very slight and fully meets environmental protection standards. Does not cause ecological impact. However, the lessons learned from the release of radioactive wastewater into the ocean caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident also deserve our high attention.

          In order to effectively ensure that radioactive pollution from inland nuclear power plants can be prevented and the consequences of the accident can be controlled under extreme accident conditions, domestic nuclear power plants in China should formulate emergency plans to ensure water safety under severe accident conditions. The plan should reflect a safety philosophy that places equal emphasis on prevention and mitigation. Studies by relevant units show that the radioactive sewage generated by inland nuclear power plants under severe accident conditions can be carried out in accordance with the four principles of "storable", "blockable", "treatable" and "isolated" Prevent and respond, and truly achieve "controllable consequences". A series of feasible engineering measures have been proposed, and detailed engineering demonstrations are underway.

          It is suggested that starting from the long-term goals of ensuring China's energy security, environmental security and sustainable development, the construction of inland nuclear power demonstration projects should be started steadily. In this process, several aspects of inland nuclear power issues are generally concerned, such as the selection and safety of inland nuclear power plant sites (especially the prevention of earthquakes and other disasters), ensuring water resources safety under severe accident conditions, etc. We must take comprehensive engineering and technical measures by carrying out targeted scientific demonstrations.

          At the same time, in response to the new situation of nuclear power development after the Fukushima accident, it is necessary to change the development and working methods, adopt democratic, scientific, and transparent decision-making procedures and methods, and establish a government-led nuclear power project with the participation of the public, enterprises and experts. Demonstration mechanism. Rational consensus and scientific development have made people generally realize that the development of nuclear power is an economic and environmental win-win strategic move. The public is the beneficiary of nuclear power development and enhances the society's confidence in nuclear power.

          Relevant issues that should be considered in the sustainable and long-term development of China's nuclear energy

          1. The supply of uranium resources does not constitute a fundamental constraint on China's nuclear power development

          China's proven reserves of uranium resources can meet the needs of the scale of nuclear power development in 2020. From a longer-term perspective, China's nuclear power development needs for uranium resources should be based on the world. Nuclear fuel is considered internationally as a "quasi-domestic resource". The safeguard of uranium resources in the world's major nuclear power nations uses "two markets and two resources". The pattern of "most countries producing nuclear power does not produce uranium and more countries producing uranium does not develop nuclear power" has continued for decades. The supply of global uranium resources for nuclear power development is sufficient. After the Fukushima nuclear accident, international uranium prices have fallen, and it is expected that there will be a certain downward trend in the future. At present, China has established a natural uranium reserve system, and breakthroughs have been made in overseas development of uranium resources and natural uranium procurement by domestic companies. By strengthening domestic uranium exploration and development, strengthening the development and trade procurement of foreign uranium resources, and establishing a diversified uranium resource guarantee system, it can provide effective resource support for China's nuclear power development. With the implementation of a natural uranium security system that combines three channels, "domestic production, overseas development, and international trade," the supply of uranium resources will not become a constraint on China's nuclear power development by the middle of this century.

          We also suggest that: China ’s uranium resource reserves have great potential, but the level of exploration is generally low, and more investment is needed; uranium exploration and mining technology and resource utilization need to be further improved, and scientific and technological research needs to be vigorously carried out; uranium extraction from seawater The potential of China ’s domestic uranium mines and mining rights are still more prominent; China ’s overseas uranium resource development needs to be further coordinated and coordinated; the research and development of fast reactors and MOX fuels has just begun, and urgent efforts are needed to increase efforts Provide a solid foundation for the protection of resources for nuclear power development. At the same time, we should make full use of the opportunity for the world ’s nuclear power development trend to slow down after the Fukushima nuclear accident to reserve uranium resources.

          2. Coordination, supporting and scientific development of all links in the entire nuclear power industry chain

          The coordinated and coordinated development of the entire nuclear power industry chain is an important link to ensure the sustainable development of nuclear power. Throughout the development experience of major international nuclear power nations, it can be summarized as follows: (1) the development of nuclear power should be planned and managed centrally by the state, and a sound regulatory system to ensure the sound development of nuclear power; (2) a nuclear island with strong power Major equipment suppliers, experienced nuclear power operators, and nuclear power engineering companies are important supporting conditions for the country's nuclear power development; (3) It has a mature and supporting nuclear fuel cycle industry to ensure the stability of the nuclear power industry front-end and back-end; 4) Capable of independent R & D and manufacturing of key technologies and equipment for nuclear power.

          It is recommended to further coordinate planning at the national level, reform the institutional mechanism, correctly guide the development of all links in the entire industrial chain, promote the effective integration of the nuclear power industry, concentrate resources, and effectively improve the capabilities and capabilities of nuclear power plant design, manufacturing, construction, commissioning, and operation. Level, gradually form a nuclear island main equipment supplier and a specialized international nuclear power engineering general contracting company with overall design, manufacturing, complete set and integration capabilities, and build a world-wide core power technology competitiveness.

          The coordinated and coordinated development of the entire nuclear power industry chain should give full attention to the storage and disposal of spent fuel and the final disposal of radioactive waste (including the safe decommissioning of nuclear facilities). This is one of the important issues facing the international nuclear power industry, and it should be given high attention. Early research and planning must be conducted and measures implemented. Among them, high-radioactive, long-cycle nuclides in radioactive waste, such as sub actinides (MA), must be reduced in volume and effectively disposed of to reduce the long-term radiation environmental risks in the future.

          3. Must strengthen the basic scientific research and technological innovation capabilities of nuclear power technology

          China should further integrate the basic research and development team of nuclear power technology, coordinate and coordinate the relevant research units of enterprise research institutes and design institutes, institutions of higher learning, and research institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, so that institutions of higher learning, nuclear energy enterprises, and other research institutions can be deployed in depth and engage in the foundation according to their respective divisions of labor Prospective and forward-looking nuclear energy science and technology research, and constantly develop promising new technologies based on market demand, avoiding low-level duplication. Encourage innovative research on various new reactor types and new concepts, related new materials, new processes and software research, preliminary research on nuclear fusion technology, etc., and conduct scientific assessments in due course. In addition, nuclear power design institutes and research institutes should be guided to do a good job of connecting with institutions of higher learning and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, industrialize and market the results of units engaged in basic research and applied research, and cultivate their own in the process. Scientific research team. At the same time, we should also strengthen collaborative innovation in enterprise science and technology, research institutes, enterprises, and universities.

          The nuclear power industry is a technology- and capital-intensive industry that requires highly qualified specialists. At present, the overall quality of the nuclear power team needs to be further improved. There is still a lack of backbones with rich practical experience, leaders in technological innovation, and senior management personnel. It is necessary to strengthen the introduction and training of high-end talents. Under the premise of ensuring the total number of talents, the focus is on improving quality and optimizing the structure. It requires unified planning by universities and nuclear energy companies, close cooperation, and coordinated development to match the scale of nuclear power development.

          4. Streamline and consolidate China's nuclear power safety supervision system and industrial management system, and actively and steadily reform the nuclear power industry system

          A strong nuclear safety supervision and industrial management system is the basis for the large-scale development of nuclear power. Emphasis should be placed on strengthening nuclear safety supervision, nuclear accident emergency response, and the ultimate safety responsibility system of nuclear power plants, and rationalizing the nuclear power-related industrial structure and management system. China's nuclear power industry management system is also insufficiently coordinated. In addition, current issues such as bad price competition in nuclear power development should be given full attention.

          Strengthening nuclear power safety supervision system and capacity building: As China's nuclear power scale increases and reactor types increase, the difficulty of nuclear power safety supervision further increases. It is recommended to take effective measures to effectively enhance the authority, independence and effectiveness of nuclear safety supervision. At the same time, we should seize opportunities such as major science and technology projects and the 12th Five-Year National Science and Technology Plan, implement work related to capacity building, and improve supervision methods. Improve regulatory capacity.

          Strengthen the emergency management system and capacity building of nuclear accidents: earnestly draw lessons from the emergency response to the Fukushima nuclear accident, including the lack and deficiency of human resources, material resources, and the formulation of regulatory guidelines. Strengthen and improve the emergency-related management system, focusing on strengthening unified coordination and decision-making among central, local governments, enterprise groups, and nuclear power plants. Each power plant should promptly formulate guidelines for the management of severe accidents and strengthen emergency response in the early stages of accident handling to prevent the escalation and expansion of accidents. At the same time, it is also necessary to coordinate and strengthen the building of emergency capabilities under conditions of extreme external events.

          Improving the final safety responsibility system of nuclear power plants: China's nuclear safety regulatory permit system clarifies that nuclear power plant operating units are the subject of ultimate safety responsibility. Due to the current diversification of investment entities and the specialization of operations, there are several different models of China's nuclear power plant licenses, which should be further studied in conjunction with China's national conditions to clarify and implement the appropriate license model and its burden as soon as possible. responsibility. At the same time, the responsibilities of all relevant task-bearing units in the construction of nuclear power should be clarified and implemented, and safety responsibilities must be properly controlled at the source.

          Actively and steadily reform China's nuclear power industry system: a scientific and reasonable industrial structure is the basis for the healthy and rapid development of nuclear power. The domestic and foreign experience of nuclear power development should be carefully summarized, especially the comparative analysis of the development experience and lessons of China and the major nuclear power countries, and in light of China's national conditions, we must actively and steadily reform our nuclear power industry system. This is a very important task. It is necessary to further coordinate planning at the national level, promote reform, promote effective integration of the nuclear power industry, and concentrate resources to maximize national interests.

          5. Effectively strengthen education and construction of nuclear safety culture

          Strengthen the quality assurance and supervision of all work and activities related to the construction and operation of nuclear power plants (including research and development, design, manufacturing, construction and installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance and repair, testing, etc.), increase transparency on existing problems, and seriously deal with violations To make the education and construction of nuclear safety culture run through the entire process of nuclear power development. It is necessary to vigorously strengthen the publicity and education to popularize nuclear energy and nuclear safety knowledge to the public, encourage and attract public participation, and strengthen in-depth exchanges and communication with relevant fields such as the scientific and technological circles and decision-making levels, so that the development of nuclear power in China has a better social foundation. And cultural foundation.

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