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          How does nuclear radiation harm the human body?

          2014/3/6 17:30:56 (Browse times: 2014/3/6 17:30:56)

          The effect of nuclear radiation on the human body is an extremely complex process. The human body starts with absorbing radiant energy, produces biological effects, and even ends up with damage and death.


          Under the effect of radiation, biological macromolecules such as nucleic acids and proteins in the human body will be ionized or excited. As a result, the properties of these biomacromolecules will be changed, and the function and metabolism of the cells will be destroyed. Experiments have shown that radiation can break DNA or prevent molecular replication. In addition, biological macromolecules in the human body are present in a large number of water molecules. When radiation acts on water molecules, the water molecules are also ionized or excited, generating harmful free radicals (such as   H +自由基等),继而使在水分子环境中的生物大分子受到损伤。 OH -1 , H + radicals, etc.), which in turn damages the biological macromolecules in the water molecular environment.
          Although radiation may cause damage to the human body, if the dose is not high, the body can repair the damaged cells or local tissues through its own metabolic process. The magnitude of this repair effect is not only related to the degree of original damage, but also possible. Varies by individual.
          Understanding the harm caused by radiation to different organs of the human body can help develop various radiation protection measures to protect people's health.
          [Radiation risk] is a quantitative measure of the health hazards of radiation. It is necessary data for evaluating radiation hazards and formulating various dose limits. The following table lists the incidence of lethal cancer caused by different organs in the body. The risks in the table below are only rough estimates. So far, the data on the relationship between radiation effects and doses are very scarce, especially for small populations and low dose rates. Therefore, the risk analysis is speculative, and the data and data based on it are mainly derived from the results of a single exposure of more than one go, and there is a certain degree of uncertainty. Therefore, pay attention to its limitations when applying, and cannot be regarded as accurate. Or constant data.

          organ

          Incidence of lethal cancer
          每万人每希 ) ( Per 10,000 people per Greek )

          bladder

          30

          Red bone marrow

          50

          Bone surface

          5

          Mammary gland

          20

          colon

          85

          liver

          15

          lung

          85

          esophagus

          30

          Ovary

          10

          skin

          2

          stomach

          110

          thyroid

          8

          1 Other organs 1

          50

          total

          500

          1 : 肾上腺 , , 大肠上部 , 小肠 , , 肌肉 , , , 胸腺和子宫 Other organs include : adrenal gland , brain , upper large intestine , small intestine , kidney , muscle , pancreas , spleen , thymus and uterus

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